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Absent Periods


Menstruation, or a menstrual period, refers to the monthly process in which the uterus sheds blood and tissue because pregnancy did not occur.

Not having or missing a menstrual period is called amenorrhea. This condition is divided into 2 types:

  • Primary amenorrhea—when an adolescent female has not yet begun menstruation by around age 16 years
    • Most females begin menstruating between the ages 9-18, but age 12 is the average.
  • Secondary amenorrhea—when a woman who has previously menstruated misses 3 or more periods in a row

Menstrual Flow
Menstrual Flow
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The most common cause of secondary amenorrhea is pregnancy. In non-pregnant women, it may be due to a variety of factors.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase the risk of amenorrhea include:

  • Dramatic weight loss (such as from extreme diets, eating disorders, or excessive exercise) or dramatic weight gain
  • Malnutrition
  • Birth defects, including lack of female reproductive organs
  • Chromosomal or hormonal abnormalities
  • Certain conditions such as thryoid disorder and pituitary tumor
  • Medications such as certain contraceptives
  • Emotional distress
  • Uterine scarring


The main symptom for primary amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a female by age 16 or older. The main symptom for secondary amenorrhea is 3 or more missed periods in a row in a woman who has previously had menstrual periods.

When Should I Call My Doctor?

Call your doctor if you:

  • Have not had your first period and are aged 16 years or older
  • Miss having your period


You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests

Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:


Treatment will depend on what is causing amennorhea. Examples include:

  • Weight-related cause—A healthy caloric intake and exercise routine usually restores hormonal balance and menstruation.
  • Birth defect—Surgery may be needed.
  • Hormonal irregularity—Hormanal therapy may be needed.
  • Emotional distress—Relaxation techniques, therapy, and exercise may help to decrease stress.
  • Pituitary tumor—Surgery, radiation therapy , or medication may be needed.


Amenorrhea may or may not be preventable, depending on the cause. Follow these general guidelines to prevent amenorrhea:

  • Maintain an appropriate level of body fat.
  • Get help for an eating disorder.
  • Treat conditions that can lead to amenorrhea, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, pituitary tumor, and hypothyroidism.

Revision Information

  • The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

  • Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services

  • Health Canada

  • The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

  • Amenorrhea. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated December 10, 2014. Accessed October 7, 2015.

  • Amenorrhea. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: Updated February 2014. Accessed October 7, 2015.

  • Current evaluation of amenorrhea. American Society for Reproductive Medicine website. Available at: Published 2008. Accessed October 7, 2015.

The health information in this Health Library is provided by a third party. TriStar Health does not in any way create the content of this information. It is provided solely for informational purposes. It does not constitute medical advice and is not intended to be a substitute for proper medical care provided by a physician. Always consult with your doctor for appropriate examinations, treatment, testing, and care recommendations. Do not rely on information on this site as a tool for self-diagnosis. If you have a medical emergency, call 911.