Type 1 diabetes is a disorder usually caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin secreting cells of the pancreas, resulting in the body’s inability to produce sufficient insulin to meet bodily needs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows the body to use sugar (glucose) for energy. Without insulin, glucose from the carbohydrate foods you eat cannot enter cells. This causes glucose to build up in the blood, leaving your body cells and tissues starved for energy. While a variety of tissue transplantation techniques are under development and some genetically-based treatments have been proposed, at this point in time, the only widely-available treatments for type 1 diabetes are the injection of insulins and inhaled insulin.
The American Diabetes Association estimates that 500,000 to 1 million people in the United States have type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood and young adulthood between 8-12 years of age. It was previously called juvenile diabetes, but the name was changed to type 1 diabetes mellitus since adults, as well as children, can develop this disease. The latter is then called latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA).
In the United States, type 1 diabetes is one of the most frequently diagnosed chronic diseases of children. According to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International, each year approximately 30,000 Americans are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, over 13,000 of whom are children—35 children every day.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the attack and destruction of insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas by the body's immune system. In people who may be genetically predisposed to this disease, exposure to factors in the environment may trigger the immune system response. The exact cause remains unknown. The trigger may be a virus, a food, a chemical, or a drug.
Type 1 diabetes may also develop because of other medical conditions. It may develop in:
- People with chronic type 2 diabetes who lose the ability to make insulin.
- Some with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery. They may lose the cells that make insulin.
- People with cystic fibrosis.
The key to controlling diabetes is maintaining your blood sugar level (fasting and after meals) within a normal range. This is done with a combination of insulin therapy, diet, and exercise. When your blood sugar levels are not within the ideal range, diabetes can cause the following problems:
In the short-term:
- High blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which is the result of too much insulin
In the long-term:
- Diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of blindness
- Diabetic nephropathy, which can lead to kidney failure
- Heart disease
- Diabetic neuropathy, which can lead to amputations
- Erectile dysfunction
- Peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities
- Early death
- Reviewer: Kim A. Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 09/2015 -
- Update Date: 09/08/2015 -