(Cancer of the Testicle; Cancer, Testicular; Seminoma; Germinoma)
- Nonseminomas (yolk sac, embryonal cell carcinoma, teratomas, and choriocarcinoma)
- Stromal cell tumors
- Personal or family history of testicular cancer
- Race: White
- Age: 25-35
- Abnormal testicular development, such as that seen in Klinefelter syndrome
- Undescended testicle that did not move down into the scrotum before birth
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- A painless lump or swelling in either testicle
- Enlargement or swelling of a testicle or change in the way it feels
- Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
- A dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin
- Fluid in the scrotum that appears suddenly
- Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum
- Lower back pain (in later stages of the cancer)
- Enlarged breasts
- Blood tests
- Ultrasound—a test that uses sound waves to find or examine tumors
- Excisional biopsy—removal of testicles to test for cancer cells
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca
Cancer Care Ontario http://www.cancercare.on.ca
Can testicular cancer be found early? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/TesticularCancer/DetailedGuide/testicular-cancer-detection. Updated January 19, 2011. Accessed March 2, 2011.
General information about testicular cancer. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH) website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/testicular/patient. Accessed July 2, 2008.
United States Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for testicular cancer. United States Preventive Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/3rduspstf/testicular/testiculrs.pdf. Accessed March 2, 2011.
What causes testicular cancer? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI%5F2%5F2%5F2x%5FWhat%5FCauses%5FTesticular%5FCancer%5F41.asp?sitearea=. Updated December 4, 2007. Accessed July 2, 2008.
Walsh TJ, Dall'Era MA, Croughan MS, Carroll PR, Turek PJ. Prepubertal orchiopexy for cryptorchidism may be associated with lower risk of testicular cancer. J Urol. 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 1):1440-6; discussion 1446.
3/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php : Ilic D, Misso M. Screening for testicular cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(2):CD007853.
2/1/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. 2012; Jun 16. Available at http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/StagingTesticularMalignancy.pdf. Updated June, 2012. Accessed February 2, 2013.
- Reviewer: Igor Puzanov, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 02/01/2013 -